1. Contribution of Indian scientist in irrigation management

Scientific contributionAssociated scientist
L.A. Ramdas (1960)Ramdas gauge or Ramdas apparatus for measuring effective rainfall under field condition
N.G.Dastane (1967 at IARI)Drum culture technique for assessment of ET , percolation losses and effective rainfall in rice culture
R.G. Sharma and N.G.Dastane (1968)Sunken screen open pan evaporimeter for direct measurement of PET:ET ratio by an irrigated crop
S.S.Parihar and B.S.Sandhu (1968)PAU moisture gauge for rapid determination of soil moisture content without oven drying methods
Parihar et at (1974)IW/CPE ratio for irrigation scheduling
R.Pal and S.R. Poonia (1979)Gypsum bed technique for neutralizing sodic tube well water


2020Dr. Rattan Laldeveloping and mainstreaming a soil-centric approach to increasing food production that restores and conserves natural resources and mitigates climate change.
2012Dr Daniel HillelConceiving and implementing micro-irrigation in arid and dry land regions
2009Gebisa EjetaDeveloping Africa’s first sorghunn hybrids resistant to drought and the parasitic witch weed
2005Dr Modadugu Vijay Gupta (Indian)Development and dissemination of low-cost techniques for freshwater flSh farming (using tilapia species) by the rural poor
2004Proo Yuan LongpingDevelopment of hybrid rice varieties
2004Dr Monty JonesDevelopment of New Rice for Africa (NERICA), with the potential to increase rice yields in Africa
2000Dr Surinder K. VasalDeveloping high quality protein maize (QPM)
1998Dr B. R. Barwale (Indian)Founder of independent seed company MAH Y CO, strengthening seed supply and distribution throughout India.
1996Dr Henry Beachell, Dr Gurdev Khush (Indian)Developing “miracle rice” varieties that doubled rice production in Asia since their development.
1989Dr Verghese Kurien (Indian)Founder of Operation Flood the largest agricultural development programme in the world made the farmer the owner of his cooperative, cutting out middlemen. India emerged as the largest producer of milk in 1998 from milk scarcity when he started
1987Prof. M.S. Swaminathan (Indian)Introducing high-yielding wheat and rice varieties to India starting India’s Green Revolution

3. Minimum Support Prices or MSP

  • Statement Showing Minimum Support Prices or MSP – Fixed by Government (Rs per quintal).
  • The Indian government (Central Govt.) sets/declares the price for 23 commodities twice a year. (Till 2020).
  • MSP is recommended by the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) since 2009 & Fixed by The Government of India.
  • CACP (Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices) was established in 1965 & recommending MSP since 2009.
  • As of now, CACP recommends MSPs of 23 commodities:-

    • 7 Cereals ( Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Sorghum, Pearl-millet, Barley & Ragi ),
    • 5 Pulses ( Chickpea, Pigeon-pea, Black-gram, Green-gram, lentil),
    • 7 Oilseeds (Groundnut, Rapeseed-mustard, Soybean, Sesamum, Sunflower, Safflower, Nigerseed)
    • 4 Commercial crops (Copra, Sugarcane, Cotton & Raw Jute).
Statement Showing Minimum Support Prices – Fixed by Government (Rs. per quintal) since 2010-11:-
KHARIF CROPS:-            
Grade ‘A’10301110128013451400145015101590177018351888 
BAJRA 880980117512501250127513301425195020002150
MAIZE 880980117513101310132513651425170017601850
RAGI 9651050150015001550165017251900289731503295
Tur (Arhar) 300032003850430043504625^5050^^5450^567558006000
MOONG 317035004400450046004850^5225^^5575^697570507196
URAD 290033004300430043504625^5000^^5400^560057006000
COTTONMedium Staple25002800360037003750380038604020515052555515
Long Staple30003300390040004050410041604320545055505825 
Groundnut 2300270037004000400040304220*4450^489050905275
SUNFLOWER SEED 2350280037003700375038003950*4100*538856505885
 Yellow1440169022402560256026002775*   3880
WHEAT 11201285135014001450152516251735184019251975
MASUR (LENTIL)225028002900295030753400**3950!4250*447548005100
Rapeseed & Mustard1850250030003050310033503700*4000*420044254650
OTHER CROPS            
(Calender Year)Ball470047755350550055005830624067857750992010300
Calender Year) 12001200140014251425150016001760203025712700
JUTE 15751675220023002400270032003500370039504225

  • The Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane payable by sugar mills for 2020-21 sugar season (October-September) is as follows:-

  • For fixing the MSP of Sugarcane FRP (Fair and Remunerative Price) is used.
  • FRP of sugarcane for 2020-21 sugar season at Rs.285/- per quintal for a basic recovery rate of 10%,
  • Premium of Rs. 2.85 per quintal for every 0.1% increase above 10% in the recovery; and
  • Reduction in FRP by Rs. 2.85 per quintal for every 0.1 percentage point decrease in recovery, in respect of those mills whose recovery is below 10% but above 9.5 percent. However, for mills having a recovery of 9.5 % or below, the FRP is fixed at Rs 270.75 per quintal.

4. Scientist related to Agro meteorology

Scientific contributionAssociated scientist
Father of meteorologyLuke Howard
Father of Indian remote sensingDr. P. R. Pisharoty
Father of Indian agro-meteorologyProo L. A. Ramdas
Mercury barometerTorricelli, 1643
Discovery of ozone layerCharles Fabry and Henri Buyson, 1913
Bio climatic lawHopkins
Time of space theoryDe Candole
1st time classification of climateDe Candole, 1900 AD
1st time classified climate based on weather elementKoppen, 1936

5. Important events in soil water relationship

Scientific contributionAssociated scientist
Classification of soil waterBriggs, 1894
Moisture holding capacityHilgard, 1896
Capillary potentialBuckingham, 1907
Moisture equivalentBriggs and McLane, 1910
permanent wilting point (PWP)Briggs and Shantz, 1912
hygroscopic coefficientAlway, 1913
field capacity (FC)Israelsen and West, 1922
Altimate wilting pointTaylor et al., 1934
pF, Ratio lawSchofield, 1935
Tensiometer or irrometerRichards and Gardner, 1936
Gypsum block/ Electrical resistanceBouyoucos and Mick, 1940
Permanent membrane apparatus (PMA)Richards, 1941
Parshall flumeParshall, 1941
Pressure plate apparatus (PPA)Richards and Fireman, 1941
Total soil moisture stress (TSMS)Wad)eigh and Aiyer, 1945
Available waterVeihmeyer and Hendrickson
Darcy lawHenry Darcy
PETThornthwaite, 1948
Term ‘Effective rainfall’N. G. Dastane
Modified Penman methodDoorenbos and Prutt, 1977
Term ‘water harvesting.’Myors
Water expense efficiencyParihar et al., 1976
Combination approach’ of irrigation schedulingDoorenbos and Kassam, 1979
Surge irrigation systemStringham and Keller, 1979
Drip irrigation systemSimcha Blass, 1964
RSC (Residual Sodium Carbonate)Eaton, 1950
Leaching requirementRichards, 1954
SPAC conceptHuber, 1924
Water balance conceptThornthwaite
ET first time used for calculation byThornthwaite
Author of book ‘Irrigation Agronomy.’N. G. Dastane
Author of book ‘Irrigation Engineering.’A.M. Michael
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