Bengaluru-based ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) has developed disease-resistant green chili varieties which can drastically cut the assembly cost of farmers by nearly 40 percent to 50 percent if these varieties are grown scientifically. According to experts, who have developed these new varieties, the leaf curl virus, transmitted by the Whitefly, has emerged as a serious problem in the major chili growing areas of Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. Here is the list of varieties
1.Arka Gagan (H 30) : Chilli F1 hybrid resistant to ChLCV
- Suitable for Green Upright segment, plants medium-tall & spreading, fruits pendant, 7.5 – 8.5 x 1-1.1 cm, firm, highly pungent (1-1.2 lakh SHU), green, medium wrinkled, and tolerant to root wilt, RKN (root-knot nematodes) and resistant to ChLCV
- The yield potential 100 q green chili yield/acre.
2.Arka Tanvi (H 45) : Chilli F1 hybrid resistant to ChLCV
- Suitable for dual medium segment, plants tall & spreading, fruits pendent, 9-10 x 1-1.1 cm , firm, medium pungent (60-65,000 SHU), green and turn deep red (90-100 ASTA) on maturity , dry fruits wrinkled and tolerant to powdery mildew, RKN (root knot nematodes) and resistant to ChLCV.
- The yield potential 30-35q dry chilli yield/ acre (or) 100 q green chilli yield / acre.
3.Arka Saanvi (H 19): Chilli F1 hybrid resistant to ChLCV
- Suitable for dual small (green & dry) segment, plants medium-tall & spreading, fruits pendant, 7-8 x 1-1.2 cm, firm, medium pungent (50-60,000 SHU), green, and turn red (80-90 ASTA) on maturity, medium wrinkled and resistant to ChLCV
- The yield potential 30-35q dry chili yield/ acre (or) 100 q green chili yield/acre.
4.Arka Yashasvi (H 8): Chilli F1 hybrid resistant to ChLCV
- Suitable for dry medium segment, plants tall & spreading, fruits pendant, 9-10 x 1.2-1.4 cm, firm, medium pungent (40-50000 SHU), green and turn deep red on maturity (90-100 ASTA), medium wrinkled and tolerant to powdery mildew, RKN (root-knot nematodes) and resistant to ChLCV.
- The yield potential 30-35q dry chili yield/ acre.
5.Arka Tejasvi (H 41): Chilli F1 hybrid resistant to ChLCV
- Suitable for dry small (Teja) segment, plants are medium tall & spreading, fruits are pendent, 7-8 x 1-1.1 cm, firm, highly pungent (90-95000 SHU), green and turn deep red (90-100 ASTA) on maturity medium wrinkled and resistant to powdery mildew and ChLCV.
The disease-resistant varieties would bring down the use of pesticides.
The ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research’s Vegetable Crops Division, Principal Scientist, Kambham Madhavi Reddy said that virus-resistant chilli varieties with intensive research efforts for nearly a decade. She has played an important role in developing Arka-Tejasvi, Arka-Tanvi, Arka-Sanvi, Arks-Yashasvi and Arka-Gagan for this purpose. “Most of those varieties are often grown across the country,” she said. “Chilli crop is impacted heavily by the weather because it is specially cultivated during Kharif season for dry chilli purpose. During Rabi and summer season, green chillies are cultivated. For the rain-fed cultivation, rainfall distribution plays a serious role,” she said and added that Chillies are vulnerable to diseases and are highly susceptible to pests.
According to her, the disease-resistant varieties would bring down the utilization of pesticides and use of drip irrigation and other scientific methods, a farmers can easily reduce cost by a minimum of by 40 per cent and it are often up to 50 per cent also. She added that half the battle is won with reference to farming when a disease-resistant variety is discovered. “The major pests are Thrips, Mites and gallfly . a number of the main diseases are fungal which may be a mildew , ‘Phytophthora’ plant disease and Aanthracnose fruit rot,” she added.
According to her, the chilly crop is additionally widely suffering from viruses like Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), Chilli veinal mottle potyvirus (ChiVMV), Chilli leaf curl virus (ChiLCV) and Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV). “These viruses are very problematic and pose serious threat to chilli crop production because the vectors are surging thanks to their wide adaptability to global climate change ,” she added.
She added that the majority of the viruses systemically infect the host, after invading cells they express their proteins replicate and move from one cell to a different . “India’s chilly exports valued about Rs 6,000 crore. within the event of if the assembly cost comes down, the worth might go up further and it can reduce crop wastage to an outsized extent,” she said. In Karnataka Achilli growing area is estimated to be around two lakh hectare and a number of other farmers can benefit. “Madhya Pradesh which was traditionally a Green Chilly producer, is now slowly taking over red chilli cultivation too. As farmers of this state have realised what proportion a red chilli crop offers to them. Red Chilly is most wanted produce by the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry too,” she explained.
The principal scientist feels that with the prevailing varieties that are available within the market, cost of production comes up around anywhere between Rs 75,000 to Rs 1 lakh and if the value of production comes down even by 40 per cent, it’s an enormous saving. “This is one among the ways how farmers can double their income,” she claimed.